Robert Peel (pictured), chief secretary of Ireland (1812-18), establishes the Peace Preservation Force to counter rural unrest on July 25, 1814. This rudimentary paramilitary police force is designed to provide policing in rural Ireland, replacing the 18th century system of watchmen, baronial constables, revenue officers, and British military forces.
Peel masterminds Act 54, George III, c.131, which is passed on July 25, 1814, to “provide for the better execution of the Laws in Ireland, by appointing Superintending Magistrates and additional Constables in Counties in certain cases.” On foot of this Act, Peel forms the Peace Preservation Force.
The Peace Preservation Force is at the disposal of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland for use in any district that has been “proclaimed” in a disturbed area. The first resident magistrates are appointed under the 1814 Act.
Sir Richard Willcocks, a former Dublin Magistrate and Special Government Magistrate, is the first appointed Chief Magistrate of the Peace Preservation Force and is allocated to the Barony of Middlethird, County Tipperary, with twenty constables who are ex-cavalry sergeants operating from a base at Cashel. He is appointed Inspector General of Munster and Stipendiary Magistrate. He dies in Dublin and is buried in Chapelizod Church of Ireland Cemetery.
The cost of the Peace Preservation Force operation has to be paid for by the area “proclaimed,” and when tranquility is restored the force will be either withdrawn or disbanded. Between 1814 and 1922 a total of four members of the Peace Preservation Force are killed on duty, namely, Sub Constable Thomas Manning is shot dead on August 16, 1821 when his patrol challenges a gang of insurgents; Chief Police Magistrate Richard Going, is shot dead on October 14, 1821 by a gang of four men while out riding; Sub Constable Hugh Colligan is killed on January 31, 1822 when his barracks are attacked; Sub Constable Thomas Knox is killed on March 10, 1822 while on sick leave and is identified as a policeman.